土耳其的首都不是伊斯坦堡_今年已更改國名,請不要再叫它「火雞」!

Isn't Istanbul the capital of Türkiye_ Türkiye has changed its name in the middle of this year, stop calling it "Turkey"!

 

D.G. Wander的世界漫遊來到土耳其。相信不少人看到標題會愣一下,土耳其首都不是伊斯坦堡嗎?正確答案是安卡拉(Ankara,舊稱「安哥拉」)。另外,土耳其已於2022/6/2將國名正式改為Türkiye,以避免之前Turkey類似「火雞」的諧音。解封旅遊潮在即,土耳其航空已從Turkish Airlines更名為Türk Hava Yolları,想下訂機票前請再三確認,以免錯過相關的資訊。

D.G. Wander's World Tour comes to Türkiye this time. I believe that many people will be stunned when they see the title. Isn't Istanbul the capital of Türkiye? The correct answer is Ankara (formerly known as "Ancyra"). In addition, Turkey officially changed the country's name to Türkiye on 2022/6/2 to avoid the previous homophony of the food Turkey. The unblocking of tourism is imminent, and Turkish Airlines has changed its name from Turkish Airlines to Türk Hava Yolları. Please double-check before booking a flight to avoid missing relevant information.

 

土耳其國旗

Photo by Meg Jerrard from Unsplash

 

土耳其 / Türkiye(2022/6/2前為Turkey)

2021 人均 GDP / 2021 GDP per capita:USD$ 9,530(76th in the world)

總人口數 / Population:8560萬 / 85.6 M

官方語言 / Language:土耳其語 / Turkish

首都 / Capital:安卡拉 / Ankara

國土面積 / Area:783,562km²

 

首都不是伊斯坦堡?土耳其遷都安卡拉的緣由

Isn’t the capital Istanbul? The reason why moving the capital to Ankara.

 

清真寺

Photo by Ayriz Buhayra from pexels 

 

鄂圖曼土耳其於第一次世界大戰中落敗,後來在阿塔圖克(Mustafa Kemal Atatürk,又稱「凱末爾」)的領導下建立了「土耳其共和國」,首都也在他的主導下,從伊斯坦堡遷到安卡拉。

Ottoman Turkey was defeated in the First World War and later established the "Turkish Republic" under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the capital was also moved from Istanbul to Ankara since then.

 

土耳其遷都有多重因素的考量。首先,伊斯坦堡距離西方世界太近,戰略位置不佳,為避免一戰的落敗重蹈覆轍,選擇接近國土中心的安卡拉,是一種戰略考量;其次,在阿塔圖克崛起的過程中,安卡拉的民眾始終很支持他,在此較易營造民族的愛國心與團結感;而阿塔圖克認為,環境條件會影響一個人的想法。伊斯坦堡象徵著古老的鄂圖曼土耳其,換一個新首都,是土耳其邁向現代化的必經之路。19231013日,土耳其大國民議會通過法案,將首都定為安卡拉。阿塔圖克紀念館,同時也是他的陵寢,就位於安卡拉。

There are multiple factors to consider when relocating the capital city. First of all, Istanbul is too close to the Western world, and its strategic position is not good. In order to avoid the loss of World War I and repeating the same mistakes, choosing Ankara, which is close to the center of the country, is a strategic consideration; secondly, the people of the country have always supported the process of Atatürk’s rise, and it is easier to create a sense of national patriotism and unity there. Atatürk believed that environmental conditions could affect a person's thinking. Istanbul symbolizes ancient Ottoman Türkiye, and the new capital is the only way for Türkiye to modernize. On October 13, 1923, the Grand National Assembly of Türkiye passed a bill making Ankara the capital. The Memorial of Atatürk, which is also his mausoleum, is located in Ankara as well.

 

聖誕老人源自土耳其!關於聖尼古拉的故事

Santa Claus comes from Türkiye! The story of Saint Nicholas.

 

聖誕老人

Photo by cottonbro from pexels

 

一般認為,聖誕老人的原型是3世紀在土耳其的聖尼古拉主教(St.Nicolas,約270~343年)。雖然今日的土耳其人絕大多數(約96%)信仰伊斯蘭教,但土耳其是基督教的發源地之一,至今仍保留許多基督教的遺跡。

It is generally believed that the prototype of Santa Claus is the bishop of St. Nicholas (about 270~343) in Türkiye in the 3rd century. Although the vast majority (about 96%) of today's Turks believe in Islam, Türkiye is one of the birthplaces of Christianity, and many remains of Christianity are still preserved.

 

聖尼古拉出生於土耳其的帕塔拉(Patara,位於今土耳其境內的戴姆雷Demre),後來成為米拉城(Myra)的主教,據說出身相當富有,而且常常悄悄贈送禮物給他人,後來口耳相傳,演變成聖誕老人的傳說。他的地位在東正教尤其受到重視,全世界許多教堂都是以他來命名的。東羅馬帝國的查士丁尼一世在位期間(527~565年),於君士坦丁堡(今伊斯坦堡)就興建一座以聖尼古拉為名的教堂,也可見他封聖的時間甚早。

St. Nicholas was born in Patara, Türkiye (in present-day Demre, Türkiye), and later became the bishop of Myra. It is said that he was very wealthy and often gave gifts quietly to others, then eventually evolved into the legend of Santa Claus. His status is especially valued in the Orthodox Church, and many churches around the world are named after him. During the reign of Justinian I of the Eastern Roman Empire (527-565), a church named after St. Nicholas was built in Constantinople (now Istanbul). It's very early.

 

荷蘭國花鬱金香的淵源,竟然來自土耳其?

The origin of the tulip, the national flower of the Netherlands, came from Türkiye?

 

鬱金香

Photo by sergeyskleznev from envatoelements

 

很多人也許不知道,荷蘭的鬱金香雖有名,事實上則源自於土耳其,而且鬱金香也是土耳其的國花。土耳其人對鬱金香的癡迷可見一斑。從皇宮中裝飾的磁磚,到一般平民使用的碗盤上,都有鬱金香的彩繪,有些杯子甚至還刻意做成鬱金香的形狀。土耳其的前身奧斯曼帝國,在一段承平時期稱作「鬱金香時代」,是個享樂主義至上、極力推廣藝術文化的年代。至今每年4月還有「鬱金香節」,為土耳其帶來旅遊觀光的熱潮。

Many people may not know that although the tulips in the Netherlands are famous, they actually originate from Türkiye, and tulips are also the national flower of Türkiye. The Turkish obsession with tulips is evident. From the tiles decorated in the palace to the bowls and plates used by ordinary civilians, there are painted tulips, and some cups are even deliberately shaped into tulips. Türkiye's predecessor, the Ottoman Empire, was called the "Tulip Age" during a period of peace. Up to now, there is also the "Tulip Festival" in April every year, which brings a tourism boom to Türkiye.

 

至於土耳其的鬱金香如何傳到荷蘭?一說是蘇丹王蘇萊曼大帝將鬱金香送給各國外交官,由奧地利外交官布斯貝克(德語:Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq)傳到維也納,再輾轉傳到荷蘭,從此被發揚光大;另一說是由荷蘭植物學家卡羅盧斯.克盧修斯(Charles de Lecluse,拉丁語:Carolus Clusius)帶回,掀起一場歐洲的鬱金香狂熱。

As for how the tulips from Türkiye came to the Netherlands. One is that Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent sent tulips to diplomats from various countries, and the Austrian diplomat Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq spread tulips to Vienna and then to the Netherlands, where they have been carried forward since then; another is that the Dutch botanist Carolus Charles de L'ecluse (Carolus Clusius in Latin) brought it back, setting off a tulip mania in Europe.

 

土耳其旋轉舞:是舞蹈,還是修行?

Turkish Sema: Is it a Dance or Meditation?

 

旋轉舞

Photo by Emir Eğricesu from Pexels

 

在土耳其有一種男性身穿長袍與高帽,並不斷旋轉的舞蹈,其實這不是單純的藝術表演,而是一種宗教修行,稱為「旋轉舞」(Sema),源自伊斯蘭教的蘇菲主義(Sufismtaṣawwuf),他們強調心靈與精神層面的修行,相信藉由旋轉舞的冥想可以和真主阿拉連結,感知宇宙的真理,並傳遞給眾人。

In Türkiye, there is a dance that needs to keep spinning in which men wear robes and high hats. In fact, this is not a simple artistic performance, but a religious practice, called "sufi whirling"(Turkish: Sema). Sufism originates from Islam (Arabic: taṣawwuf / English: Sufism), they emphasize spiritual and spiritual practice, believe that through the meditation of whirling dance, one can connect with Allah, perceive the truth of the universe, and transmit it to the crowd.

 

為了吸引觀光客,當地許多餐廳酒吧將旋轉舞當作一種民俗舞蹈來演出,其實誤會大了!近年來土耳其政府加強規範旋轉舞的場地,只要有酒精飲品的餐廳皆禁止提供旋轉舞。正式的旋轉舞場地稱為Semahane / Mevlevihane,中間為舞台,旁邊設有柵欄,後面才是觀眾的座位區。畢竟是嚴肅的宗教儀式,整個過程觀眾也是不拍手的。

In order to attract tourists, many local restaurants and bars perform sufi whirling dance as a folk dance. In fact, there is a big misunderstanding! In recent years, the Turkish government has strengthened the regulation of venues for sufi whirling, as long as restaurants with alcoholic beverages are prohibited from serving the dance. The formal sufi whirling dance venue is called Semahane/Mevlevihane, with a stage in the middle, a fence on the side, and a seating area for the audience behind. After all, it is a serious religious ceremony, and the audience should not clap during the whole process.

 

重要場合都得洗澡?土耳其浴場的功用

Need to take shower on every important occasion? The function of the hammam(Turkish bath).

 

土耳其浴

Photo by Yura Timoshenko from Unsplash

 

土耳其浴源自於古羅馬人的浴場。土耳其人攻佔君士坦丁堡後,繼承了古羅馬人的洗浴方式,同樣有熱水、蒸汽浴與冷水等步驟,並融入伊斯蘭的思想文化(例如採用流動的熱水而非單純的池水,認為這樣水才乾淨),成為具有獨特風格的土耳其浴。

The Turkish bath (Turkish: Hamam / Arabic: ḥammām‎) originates from the Roman baths. After the Turks conquered Constantinople, they inherited the bathing methods of the ancient Romans, including hot water, steam bath, and cold water, and integrated Islamic ideology and culture (for example, using flowing hot water instead of pool water, they think that the water is clean by doing so.), and become a Turkish bath with a unique style.

 

公共浴場對伊斯蘭世界來說特別重要。以前並非每戶人家都有浴間,伊斯蘭教又特別重視潔淨的概念,各種大大小小的傳統習俗都得在公共浴場進行,不但做禮拜前得淨身,和出生有關的孕婦產後浴、新生兒浴、割禮,以及各種宗教活動與節慶,都得淨身。可以說,穆斯林的一生幾乎離不開浴場。

Public baths are of particular importance to the Islamic world. In the past, not every household had a bathroom. Islam also attached great importance to the concept of cleanliness. All kinds of traditional customs had to be carried out in public bathing places. Bathing, circumcision, and various religious activities and festivals require purification. It can be said that the life of a Muslim is almost inseparable from the bath.

新加坡星耀樟宜

新加坡的首都是新加坡市 _ 填海造陸的夢幻國際機場 _ 為了一睹漩渦瀑布而特地來此轉機

D.G. Wander這次來到了充滿南洋風情的星馬地區,先漫遊到新加坡,來看看這座東南亞海港,如何躍升成國際金融中心,介紹令人胃口大開的大雜燴沙拉羅惹;填海造陸的浩大工程;象徵種族文化大融合的Singlish;以及連續8年蟬聯第一的樟宜機場。
瑞士

🇨🇭 瑞士的首都不是蘇黎世 _ 在地球上選一個國家作為公園 _ 那就是瑞士

D.G. Wander來到山明水秀的瑞士。蘇黎世(Zurich)雖是瑞士第一大城,但瑞士的首都其實是一個相對冷門的名字:伯恩(Bern)。瑞士擁有風景秀麗的阿爾卑斯山,得天獨厚的自然景觀,不但是冬季滑雪的勝地,夏天更是登山愛好者的天堂。然而,獨特的瑞士人有某些性格,可能會令你大感意外!
土耳其

🇹🇷 土耳其的首都不是伊斯坦堡 _ 今年已更改國名 _ 請不要再叫它「火雞」

D.G. Wander的世界漫遊來到土耳其。相信不少人看到標題會愣一下,土耳其首都不是伊斯坦堡嗎?正確答案是安卡拉(Ankara,舊稱「安哥拉」)。另外,土耳其已於2022/6/2將國名正式改為Türkiye,以避免之前Turkey類似「火雞」的諧音。解封旅遊潮在即,土耳其航空已從Turkish Airlines更名為Türk Hava Yolları,想下訂機票前請再三確認,以免錯過相關的資訊。

Contact Us