原始的香檳竟然沒有氣泡?香檳之父也不是她真正的發明者!

There is no sparkling taste and bubble in the primitive champagne. Even the father of champagne was not the exact inventor.

 

說到香檳酒(英語:Champagne;法語:vin de Champagne),就要從法國的香檳產區開始談起。香檳地區位於法國東北部,中世紀屬於香檳伯爵的領地,自古就是交通要道和貿易樞紐,是多條水路與陸路的匯集點:往東通往德國,往西通往西班牙;往南是義大利和地中海地區,往北則是法蘭德斯(比利時北部)和北海。12至14世紀由於十字軍東征的影響,香檳地區的貿易愈加興盛,於是「香檳市集」(法語:Foires de Champagne)誕生,成為歐洲當時最重要的商業中心之一。釀酒業也在此時蓬勃發展,帶動了香檳地區葡萄酒的生產力,並開始向周圍地區傳播。

When it comes to Champagne (Which means Vin de Champagne in French), it shall start from the production area of Champagne in France. The region is in the northeastern part of France, which belonged to the territory of the Counts of Champagne in the Middle Ages. It has been a major transportation junction and commercial center since ancient times. To the south are Italy and the Mediterranean region, and to the north are Flanders (northern Belgium) and the North Sea. From the 12th to the 14th century, due to the influence of the Crusades, the trade in the Champagne region became more and more prosperous, so the "Champagne Market" (Which means Foires de Champagne in French) was born and thus became one of the most significant trading centers in Europe at that time. The winemaking industry also flourished at this time, driving the productivity of the wines of the Champagne region, and beginning to spread to the surrounding areas.

 

香檳……其實是英國人發明的?

There is a saying that champagne was invented by the British. Can it be truly believed?

 

香檳 Champagne

Photo by Sabel Blanco from Pexels

 

各位也許會想,不如直接談香檳酒,為何要從產地談起?因為,歐洲人談葡萄酒特別講究「風土」(Terroir)──一個地方的氣候和土壤往往決定了葡萄酒的風味。鄰近香檳地區的勃根地(法語:Bourgogne;英語:Burgundy),很早就產出品質極佳的紅酒,香檳地區礙於位處北方的寒冷氣候,一直未能有頗具盛名的佳釀,所產的酒不是酸度偏高,就是甜份過少。一般提到香檳酒,都認為是香檳之父:唐‧培里農修士(Dom Pérignon)所發明的,實際上這是個天大的誤會!他的確為香檳地區的葡萄酒做出許多改良的貢獻,但是僅止於仍是靜態酒(無氣泡)的階段。香檳公爵開明的商業管理策略,以及酒農和修士們不斷精進葡萄的種植與產製,使得香檳地區的產酒品質,在13世紀──同時也是歐洲商業貿易的巔峰時代,得以和其他法國產區一較高下(尤其是他們最在意的勃根地)。

People may think that why should talk about the production area first rather than the champagne itself? It is because that Europeans pay special attention to terroir, a key factor that often determines the flavor of the wine through the climate and soil. Burgundy (Which means Bourgogne in French), a place that is adjacent to the Champagne region, has produced high-quality red wine from a very early time. Due to the cold weather in the north, the wines produced in the Champagne region were not able to make themselves famous. The wine was either too acidic or too sweet. When it comes to champagne, it is often believed that it was invented by the father of champagne: Dom Pérignon. In fact, this is such a big misunderstanding! He did make plenty of improvements to the wines, but only at the stage of still wine (no sparkling). The open-minded business management strategy of the Duke of Champagne, as well as the continuous improvement of the cultivation and production of grapes by wine farmers and friars, enabled the quality of wine produced in the region to be comparable to other French wines in the 13th century. At the peak of European commercial trade, it successfully brought confidence to the region and competed against the others (especially Burgundy, which they care about most).

 

香檳酒真正的發明者,是英國的物理學家克里斯多福‧梅雷特(Christopher Merret),他在已經過一次發酵的葡萄酒中額外加入糖份,產生了第二次發酵,並將這個「香檳製作法」的紀錄成果於1662年獻給英國皇家學院。而在法國,氣泡酒是在偶然中誕生的:1531年在南法的利穆區(Limoux),有釀酒師將還沒發酵完成的葡萄酒直接裝瓶,而讓酒中的葡萄酒繼續產生氣泡。至今法國南部一帶(如利穆)仍有遵循這種古法釀製的氣泡酒:對酒不進行除渣,酒中仍含有酵母殘渣,酒味也通常較甜。而由於瓶中過大的氣壓時常使瓶身爆裂,因此氣泡酒又有「魔鬼酒」(vin du diable)的稱號。一直要到19世紀後期,法國的香檳區才使用梅雷特的香檳製作法(二次發酵法)來釀製葡萄酒,並大量生產,至今已成為家喻戶曉的葡萄酒酒款。

The real inventor of champagne was a British physicist named Christopher Merret, who added extra sugar to the wine that had been fermented once, resulting in a second fermentation. He later dedicated the record of the Champagne Method to the British Royal Academy in 1662. Besides, in France, sparkling wine was born by accident in 1531. In the Limoux region of southern France, a winemaker bottled the wine that had not yet been fermented, while the wine continued to bubble, and accidentally created the first sparkling champagne in France. Nowadays, sparkling wines are still made according to this ancient method in southern France, such as Limoux. People here don`t often remove dregs, so it still contains yeast residue, and it usually makes wine sweeter. Moreover, because the excessive air pressure in the bottle often causes it to burst, sparkling wine is also known as "Vin du Diable" which means the wine of the devil. It was not until the late 19th century that the Champagne region of France used Meret's Champagne method (secondary fermentation) to brew wine and mass-produced it, and now it has become a well-known wine around the world.

 

香檳 Champagne

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香檳和氣泡酒(英語:Sparkling wine;法語:Vin effervescent)又有何不同?原來為了遏止酒商從其他地區引進低價劣質酒濫竽充數,法國於1892年由最高法院頒布法令,「香檳酒」這個名稱只能使用在採摘和釀製過程都在香檳區完成的葡萄酒。因此,「香檳酒」就擁有產區和風土的概念,而與其它的「白葡萄氣泡酒」有了區別:它是在特定地區釀製的葡萄酒,而且產酒的品質與它的土壤特色及釀造技術密切相關;而法國其他產區使用香檳法製成的氣泡酒,則稱為「克雷芒」(Cremant)。

What is the difference between champagne and sparkling wine (Which means Vin Effervescent in French)? It turned out that in order to prevent wine merchants from importing low-priced and inferior wine from other regions, the Supreme Court of France issued a decree in 1892. The name "champagne" can only be used for wines that are picked and brewed in the Champagne region. Therefore, "Champagne" has the special concept of the production area and the terroir, which makes it different from other "white grape sparkling wine". it is a wine produced in a specific area, and the quality of the wine is related to the feature of soil and brewing technology; while the sparkling wine made by the champagne method in other regions of France is called "Cremant".

 

香檳品種三姊妹:夏多內、黑皮諾、莫尼耶皮諾

The Three Sisters of Champagne: Chardonnay, le Pinot Noir, and Pinot Meunier.

 

夏多內 Chardonnay

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香檳酒使用的葡萄品種也有一定的規範(法定品種),現今大多數的香檳都選用夏多內、黑皮諾、莫尼耶皮諾這三個品種來調配香檳酒:夏多內呈現優雅的口感,黑皮諾平衡整體的架構並帶來果香,莫尼耶皮諾則賦予香檳更多的花香和果香,三者完美的調配,造就法國香檳酒的與眾不同。

The grape varieties used in champagne also have certain specifications (legal varieties). Most champagne today usually uses Chardonnay, le Pinot Noir, and Pinot Meunier to blend. Chardonnay presents an elegant taste, Pinot Noir balances the overall structure and brings fruity aromas, while Pinot Meunier imparts more floral and fruity aromas to the champagne. The perfect blend of the three makes the French champagne unique.

 

夏多內(Chardonnay,又稱「霞多麗」)原產於法國勃根地,現今已普及至世界各地,有「葡萄皇后」的稱號。夏多內已成為各式氣泡酒中重要的成分,不僅是法國的香檳區,義大利的法蘭契柯達氣泡酒(義語:Franciacorta)也大量使用夏多內釀成。它屬於中等風味,但受到不同的氣候、土壤以及橡木桶的影響,香氣可以變化萬千:法國的夏布利(Chablis)帶有礦物味,而許多新世界的夏多內酒款則富含濃郁的熱帶水果風味。

Chardonnay originated in Burgundy, France, and has now spread all over the world, having the title of "Queen of Grapes". It has become an important ingredient in all kinds of sparkling wines, not only in the Champagne region of France but in sparkling wine from Italy(known as Franciacorta in Italian) as well. It is medium in flavor, but can widely depend on climate, soil, and types of oak. Chablis from France has a mineral taste, while lots of Chardonnays from the new world own special tropical fruit flavor.

 

黑皮諾(le Pinot noir,或簡稱le Pinot,又稱「黑比諾」、「黑品樂」)是原產於法國東北部的紅葡萄,其中又以勃根地的黑皮諾品質最高,為世人津津樂道,而不僅是黑皮諾的紅酒頗具盛名,它也是香檳酒和氣泡酒的主角之一。黑皮諾因為皮薄而容易受傷,加上對環境特別挑剔,因此需要細心呵護,是量少單價又高的嬌貴品種。但是黑皮諾略帶酸味的香氣,以及櫻桃、草莓和覆盆子的果香,柔和而淡雅,口感和眾多紅葡萄比起來清爽細緻而不澀,單寧也較柔順,因此適合釀製成香檳來飲用。

Le Pinot noir, also known as Pinot Noir, or le Pinot for short, is a red grape originating in northeastern France, among which Pinot Noir from Burgundy has the highest quality that people dwell upon with great relish the most. Not only is the red wine of Pinot Noir so popular, but it is also one of the protagonists of champagne and sparkling wine. Pinot Noir can easily get injured because of its thin skin, and particularly, it has a high demand in the environment, so it usually offers extra care, and these reasons make it become a delicate variety with a small quantity and a high unit price. On the other hand, the slightly sour flavor, as well as the fruity aroma of cherries, strawberries, and raspberries, make it soft and elegant. Compared with many red grapes, the taste of it is more refreshing, delicate, and not astringent, and the tannins are softer, so it is often to be brewed into champagne to drink.

 

莫尼耶皮諾(Pinot Meunier,又稱「梅尼耶」Meunier或「黑雷司令」Schwarzriesling)是知名的紅葡萄品種。同樣屬於「皮諾家族」,和黑皮諾比起來,甜份和酒精濃度相仿,但色澤更淺、酸度更高、單寧更少。法語Meunier是「磨坊」的意思,因為莫尼耶皮諾的葡萄葉有細小如麵粉的白毛而得名。具有蘋果、香蕉、黑醋栗、櫻桃和李子的香氛,果味較為柔和,口感圓潤滑順,它為香檳帶來更多的親和力,香檳極強的配餐能力也歸功於它的獨特芬芳。

Pinot Meunier, also known as "Meunier", or "Black Riesling", or Schwarzriesling, is also a well-known red grape variety. It also belongs to the "Pinot family" as well. Compared with Pinot Noir, it has similar sweetness and alcohol concentration, but lighter color, higher acidity, and less tannin. Meunier means "mill" in French, named after the grape leaves of Pinot Meunier with white hairs as small as flour. With aromas of apple, banana, blackcurrant, cherry, and plum, the fruity taste is softer and is round, and smooth. It brings more affinity to champagne, and its strong pairing ability is also due to its unique fragrance.

 

百搭天后:關於香檳的餐酒搭配

The queen of wine pairing: The pairing of food and Champagne.

 

香檳 Champagne

Photo by Tim Douglas from Pexels

 

香檳非常適合作為餐前酒飲用。適當的酸味具有促進食慾的功能,想搭配小吃和冷盤,開胃酒選它就對了!浪漫的氣泡也能為宴席的開場增添浪漫氣氛,夫妻想慶祝結婚紀念日,一杯香檳來暖場,讓你回憶初識時的甜蜜時光。

Champagne is fantastic as an aperitif. Appropriate sour taste has the function of promoting appetite. If wondering what to drink with snacks and cold dishes, it can be a perfect choice. Bubbles can also add a romantic atmosphere to the opening of the banquet. For the couple who would like to celebrate their wedding anniversary, a glass of champagne can warm up the venue and remind them of the sweet time when they first met.

 

香檳也是屬於百搭款的配餐酒。較不甜的乾型、或是單寧較柔滑的香檳,適合搭配海鮮和雞肉等白肉,或是清淡的開胃菜;口感類似紅酒的香檳,單寧偏重且酸度偏高,可搭配牛羊豬等紅肉或重口味的餐點。而適當的溫度才能發揮香檳迷人的香氣和口感,經冰鎮過後介於攝氏7~12度的香檳,風味絕佳。

Champagne is also versatile for wine pairing. The one with less sweet, dry, and smoother tannins can go with white meats such as seafood, chicken, or light appetizers; For the one that tastes like red wine, with heavy tannins and high acidity, can be paired with red meats such as beef, mutton, and pork or strong-tasting meals. The accurate temperature can bring out the charming aroma and excellent taste of champagne. The one that maintains between 7 and 12 degrees Celsius after chilling can perfect inspire champagne`s flavor.

 

挑一隻自己喜歡的香檳吧,單身貴族也有屬於自己的悠閒時光,讓香檳的氣泡與芳香,陪伴自己一個下午,選一本書,度過知性又優雅的幸福時刻。

Select a bottle of champagne you love, even nobles have their own leisure time, let the bubbles and aroma of champagne accompany you for an afternoon. Choose a book, and spend an intellectual and elegant moment of happiness.

餐配酒 / 酒配餐

不管是酒配餐還是餐配酒,味蕾平衡最重要

葡萄酒是西式美食的好夥伴,一杯適當的美酒,能使一道普通的料理昇華成美味十足的佳餚。無論是餐配酒,還是酒配餐,懂得一些基本的match方式,料理和美酒不但各自加分,而且能讓一加一大於二,全局Hold住你的饗宴!
葡萄園

細說「舊世界」的葡萄酒文化 _ 兩大紅酒帝國:法國與義大利

葡萄酒自成一片天地,總有說不完的故事,所以品酒文化才擁有迷人的風采。懂一點品酒,可以為生活增添點不凡的品味,也具有一種跳脫日常的趣味性。 葡萄酒有所謂「新舊」之別:不只是年份的新與舊,同時也有來自「新世界」或「舊世界」的區分。
香檳 Champagne

原始的香檳竟然沒有氣泡?香檳之父也不是她真正的發明者!

說到香檳酒(英語:Champagne;法語:vin de Champagne),就要從法國的香檳產區開始談起。12至14世紀由於十字軍東征的影響,香檳地區的貿易愈加興盛,於是「香檳市集」(法語:Foires de Champagne)誕生,成為歐洲當時最重要的商業中心之一。釀酒業也在此時蓬勃發展,帶動了香檳地區葡萄酒的生產力,並開始向周圍地區傳播。

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