細說「舊世界」的葡萄酒文化 _ 兩大紅酒帝國:法國與義大利

Depicting on the culture of wine in ancient times

- The two empires of wine France and Italy.

 

葡萄酒自成一片天地,總有說不完的故事,所以品酒文化才擁有迷人的風采。懂一點品酒,可以為生活增添點不凡的品味,也具有一種跳脫日常的趣味性。

葡萄酒有所謂「新舊」之別:不只是年份的新與舊,同時也有來自「新世界」或「舊世界」的區分。

Wine has a world of its own, and there are endless stories to tell. That is the reason making wine tasting culture so charming. It brings extraordinary taste and joy.

There are so-called distinctions between old and new world wine: Vintages and ancient or present times.

 

新舊世界,各有風情

Old and New World Wine - Class of their own

葡萄酒的歷史可以追溯至西元前6000~7000年左右的西亞兩河流域與埃及尼羅河一帶,這個釀酒傳統後來傳到歐洲大陸並發揚光大。舊世界主要是指法國、義大利、西班牙、德國、希臘和以色列、黎巴嫩等歐洲或中東地區的原始產酒國;新世界則是泛指美洲、大洋洲、亞洲和非洲等16世紀之後才開始輸入葡萄酒文化的新興產酒國,如美國、加拿大、智利、阿根廷、巴西、中國、日本、印度、澳洲、紐西蘭、南非等國家。 

The history of wine can be traced back to about 7000-8000 BC in the Euphrates and Tigris in West Asia and the Nile in Egypt. This traditional winemaking ability was later spread to the European continent and carried forward. The old world mainly refers to the original wine-producing countries in Europe or the Middle East such as France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Greece, Israel, and Lebanon; The new world generally refers to the Americas, Oceania, Asia and Africa, and other emerging wine-producing countries that began to import wine culture after the 16th century, such as the United States, Canada, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, China, Japan, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, etc.

 

舊世界葡萄酒有其悠久的淵源與歷史,所以從葡萄的品種、栽種、收成到釀造技術都有嚴格的規範,有些國家甚至立法加以分級管理,以維持葡萄酒的品質。它們特別講究當地的風土,所以酒款通常都以酒莊或地區來命名。優雅、收斂、風土、礦石與皮革味、精緻與富有層次感等等,是舊世界的代名詞。

The wine in the old world had a long history and origin, so there are strict specifications on grape varieties, growing, harvesting, and making techniques. Some countries even legislate to classify them to maintain the quality of the wine. Winemaking requires particular attention to the local terroir; this comes to the reason that wines are usually named after the winery or region. Elegance, restraint, terroir, minerality, leather, sophistication, and rich layers are synonymous with the old world.

 

新世界,名字聽起來就令人聯想到新鮮感。的確,這些國家多數由近代開始興起,獨立自主的精神也表現在釀產的葡萄酒身上。沒有太多的嚴格限制,因此各有各的風味,也有較多的「混釀酒」,甚至帶有一些實驗性質的味道。它們一邊沿襲舊世界的傳統,一邊逐步發展出自己的新路。自由奔放、濃郁果香以及良好的適口性最適合形容它們。

On the other hand, the new world, a name alone can conjure up freshness and novel. And indeed, most of these countries began to rise in modern times, and the spirit of independence is also reflected in the wines they produced. There are not too many cumbersome restrictions in this emerging industry, each has its own special flavor, and there are also more blended wines with a bit experimental nature. While they had followed the traditions of the old world, they gradually developed their own new paths. They are best described as free-spirited, fruity, and with favorable palatability.

 

提及葡萄酒,為何總是聯想到法國?

Wine and French Connection

為何講到葡萄酒(尤其是紅酒),多數人想到的都是法國這個國家?原來,葡萄這個作物大約在西元前1000年左右開始傳入法國南部,之後才在地中海地區廣泛傳播,因此以歐洲各國來說,法國算是最早開始釀造葡萄酒的地區之一。葡萄酒與一種祭神文化有關:希臘羅馬神話中就有酒神巴古斯(Bacchus)的存在。早期它被作為貴族的飲品,葡萄酒的平民化則是到了基督宗教的出現,被視為耶穌基督的聖血,平民大眾才有飲用葡萄酒的權利。

Why do most people think of France when it comes to wine (especially red wine)? It turned out that grapes were introduced to southern France around 1000 BC, and then spread widely in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, in terms of European countries, France is one of the earliest regions to start wine production. Wine is also associated with a culture of sacrifice to the gods: Bacchus, the god of wine, is a great example that exists in Greek and Roman mythology. In the early time, it was used as the drink of the nobility, and as time went by, the popularization of wine came with the emergence of Christianity, which was regarded as the holy blood of Jesus Christ. As wine played an increasingly important role in religious activities, the common people could gradually drink wine more easily.

 

法國

Photo by Borja Lopez from Pexels

 

法國葡萄酒以「產區」來為葡萄酒歸類,不同區域的葡萄酒有其無可取代的獨特性。主要分為12個產區,其中以波爾多(Bordeaux)、勃根地(Bourgogne)和香檳(Champagne)產區最為知名並享譽國際。波爾多以濃郁型的紅酒著稱;勃根地則多產清爽型紅酒和淡雅型白酒;香檳區聽它的名稱就知道了,專門釀製浪漫的氣泡酒。另外,阿爾薩斯(Alsace)產區有「白酒之鄉」的稱號,以雷司令(Riesling,又稱「麗絲玲」)乾白葡萄酒最為知名;博若萊(Beaujolais,又稱「薄酒萊」)產區以佳美(Gamay)葡萄聞名,所產的「博若萊新酒」更是紅酒界的新寵兒。各地不同的風土氣候與釀酒工藝,造就了許多知名的葡萄品種與酒款。

French wines are classified by "regions", wines from different regions have their irreplaceable uniqueness. They are mainly divided into 12 production area, of which Bordeaux, Bourgogne and Champagne are the most well-known and internationally renowned. Bordeaux is known for its full-bodied red wines; Burgundy produces more refreshing red wines and elegant white wines; As for the Champagne, it is famous for its name, specializing in romantic sparkling wines. In addition, the Alsace region has the title of "Hometown of Liquor", which is well-known for Riesling dry white wine; The Beaujolais production area, which is famed for Gamay grapes, also occupies an important position.  Its new produced “Beaujolais Nouveau” has become highly popular in the red wine industry. Therefore, different terroirs, climates and winemaking techniques have created many world-known grape varieties and wines.

 

講究規範的波爾多葡萄酒

The precise specification of Bordeaux Wines

法國波爾多地區每年約有7億瓶葡萄酒產出,擁有約8500家酒莊。由於得天獨厚的風土條件,使得波爾多釀產的葡萄酒有著濃厚的香醇芬芳。波爾多將近9成的葡萄園種植紅葡萄,因此以高品質的紅酒著稱。

About 700 million bottles of wine are brewed in the Bordeaux region in France every year, and these high qualities of wines are produced in approximately 8500 wineries. Due to their unique terroir, the wines produced there have a strong mellow fragrance. Nearly 90% of Bordeaux's vineyards are planted with red grapes, hence this region is known for its high-class red wine as well. 

 

波爾多葡萄酒的分級制度最早於1855年創立。在當年的巴黎世界博覽會上,拿破崙三世宣布將波爾多葡萄酒分為五個等級,是依據當時酒莊(Château)的名聲,以及其葡萄酒的價格與品質所訂定。目的除了嚴格規範葡萄酒的產製之外,也有向世人宣傳的意味。

The classification system for Bordeaux wines was first created in 1855. Napoléon III announced that it would be divided into five grades, based on the reputation of the winery, as well as the price and quality of their wines at the Paris World Exposition that year. Its purpose is not only to strictly regulate the production system of wine, but also to publicize it to the world.

 

1935年,法國透過繁複的法律條文,建立一套完整的葡萄酒命名系統,並委由專門的監督委員會「原產地命名國家學會」(INAO)管理。因此,最早的葡萄酒命名系統也是源自法國,而其他歐洲各國也都競相模仿。現代法國則將葡萄酒分為四種級別:原產地管制命名(AOC)、法定產區(VDQS)、地區餐酒(Wine of Country)及日常餐酒(Wine of the table)。產區、命名制度與級別,繁文縟節也是舊世界葡萄酒(特別是法國)的普遍現象,從這點就可以看到他們對葡萄酒文化的堅持、講究與品味。

In 1935, France established a complete wine naming system through complicated legal provisions and entrusted it to the management of the special supervision committee "The National Institute of origin and quality" (INAO). Thus, the earliest naming system of wine was also originated from France, and afterwards, other European countries are also competing to imitate. in modern France, wines are divided into four grades: Designation of Origin Controlled (AOC), Legal Area of Origin (VDQS), Regional Wine of Country, and Wine of the table. The production area, the naming system, grading level, and red tape are also common phenomena that can be reflected in wines in the old world. From this point of view, it is obvious to see their persistence, devote, and taste in wine culture.

 

義大利之子與紅酒之王

Italian Wine - The King and The Son

 

紅葡萄

Photo by Pixabay from Pixels

 

義大利葡萄酒也是世界知名的,也同樣擁有深厚的釀酒文化。每年產量約占全球兩成左右,有時甚至還超越常勝軍法國。20個產區正好對應20個主要行政區,其中又以皮耶蒙特(Piemonte)的巴羅洛紅酒(Barolo),和托斯卡尼(Toscana)的基安蒂紅酒(Chianti,又稱「奇揚地」)最受注目。

Italian wine is also world-renowned and has a profound winemaking culture. The annual output accounts for it are about 20% of the world`s total, and sometimes even surpasses the French product which is a constant winner in sales figures. The 20 producing regions of wines correspond to the 20 main administrative areas in Italy, among which are the Barolo wines from Piemonte and Chianti wines from Toscana, which the most notable.

 

巴羅洛有「紅酒之王」的美稱,是由內比奧羅(Nebbiolo)這義大利本土的葡萄品種釀製,是一種非常名貴的美酒。Nebbiolo的原意是指「小霧」,皮耶蒙特秋天的霧氣提供葡萄良好的培育環境。巴羅洛酒體呈紅寶石色,非常飽滿,酸度、酒精濃度和單寧都偏高,帶有松露、玫瑰和焦油味,混合成濃厚的果香與花香。托斯卡尼擁有古老的釀酒傳統,基安蒂紅酒就是最經典的一款紅酒,主要品種是桑嬌維塞(Sangiovese,又稱「山吉歐維榭」),原意為「邱比特之血」,而桑嬌維塞又被稱為「義大利之子」,可見它擁有的歷史淵源與尊貴地位。酒體呈現清澈透明的桃紅色,協調的口感和清新的果香是它最明顯的特徵。上述兩種義大利最知名的紅葡萄酒,濃淡有別,酒客各有所好。

Barolo is known as the "King of Red Wine", it is made from Nebbiolo, a native Italian grape variety, which is precious and expensive. The original meaning of Nebbiolo means "little fog", which can direct to the autumn mist in Piedmont providing a wonderful environment for grape cultivation. It is ruby red in color, very full, high in acidity, alcohol and tannin, with notes of truffle, rose and tar, blending into a strong fruity and floral aroma. Toscana has an ancient winemaking tradition. Chianti red wine is the most classic one among them. The main variety of it is Sangiovese which originally means "Blood of Cupid". It is also known as the "Son of Italy", which shows its historical origin and distinguished status in the country. A clear and transparent pink color, harmonious taste and fresh fruit aroma are its most obvious features. The two most famous red wines in Italy mentioned above are of different flavors and tastes, the drinkers may choose the one that can impress the most.

 

糊塗里精選酒款

Featured wine selection by dotard village

 

萊凌(超級波爾多)

Chateau LALENE 2016Bordeaux Superieur

 

萊凌(超級波爾多)Chateau LALENE 2016(Bordeaux Superieur)

 

以梅洛(Merlot,又稱「美樂」)為主,佐以少量的卡本內蘇維儂(Cabernet Sauvignon,又稱「赤霞珠」),完美呈現波爾多混釀的經典風味。這款「超級波爾多」佳釀,葡萄摘自樹齡長達45年的老藤,酒體呈紅寶石色,帶點紫羅蘭、奶油、黑醋栗以及松樹的香氣。單寧雅致,酒體飽滿,果感十足。清新的櫻桃、話梅、果皮味,再略帶些薰烤的氣味,整體而言是優雅的酒款。

Merlot as the main grape variety, with a small amount of Cabernet Sauvignon, which perfectly presents the classic flavor of Bordeaux blends. This 'Super Bordeaux' wine, sourced from 45-year-old vines, has a ruby red color and aromas of violets, cream, black currant and pine. It is elegant tannins, full-bodied and fruity. Fresh cherries, plums, fruit peels, and a little bit of roasted aromas make it a graceful wine overall.

 

達瑪雅克 2008

Chateau d'Armailhac 2008

 

達瑪雅克 2008 Chateau d'Armailhac 2008

 

來自波雅克(Pauillac)的五級酒莊,1933年成為木桐莊園(Château Brane-Mouton)的一部分,目前仍由前木桐莊主羅富齊(Philippe Rothschild)的女兒掌管。以卡本內蘇維儂為主,混合梅洛和少量的卡本內弗朗(Cabernet Franc,又稱「品麗珠」)與小維多(Petit Verdot,又稱「小梅鐸」)。酒體呈深寶石紅色,帶有黑梅和紅果的芬芳,醒酒後再帶出黑醋栗、櫻桃、煙草和其他香草味。酒體中等,丹寧結實。具有濃厚的煙燻味和柔中帶剛的特色。

This Grand Cru Classe from Pauillac, which became part of Château Brane-Mouton in 1933, is still managed by the daughter of former Mouton owner Philippe Rothschild. The main element of the wine is Cabernet Sauvignon, mixed with Merlot and a small amount of Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot (also known as "Little Murdoch"). It is deep ruby red, with aromas of black plum and red fruit, cassis, cherries, tobacco, and other herbs on decanting. Medium-bodied with firm tannins, and has a strong smoky flavor with a soft and firm character.

 


榭格拉 2009
Château Rauzan-Ségla, Ségla 2009

 

榭格拉 2009 Château Rauzan-Ségla, Ségla 2009

 

榭格拉是著名的梅多克二級酒莊──侯松‧榭格拉(Château Rauzan Ségla)的副牌酒,現今為時尚品牌香奈兒(CHANEL)的維德摩爾(Wertheimer)家族所持有,並由知名釀酒師 Nicolas Audebert 管理。混合卡本內蘇維儂、梅洛、卡本內弗朗與小維多,酒體外觀呈深紅寶石色,單寧柔滑,散發出藍莓和香草的芳醇。

Ségla is the second label to Château Rauzan Ségla, the famous second-level Grand Cru Classe winery from Médoc, and is now owned by the Wertheimer family of the fashion brand CHANEL. It is managed by renowned winemaker Nicolas Audebert. A blend of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot, the wine has a deep ruby-colored appearance, smooth tannins, and aromas of blueberry and vanilla.

 

佛利安諾經典基安蒂單一莊園佳釀

VALIANO POGGIO TEO Chianti Classico

 

佛利安諾經典基安蒂單一莊園佳釀  VALIANO POGGIO TEO Chianti Classico

 

佛利安諾(Valiano)酒莊前面的小山丘被稱為Poggio Teo,這款經典的基安蒂紅酒便以它來命名。酒體呈深紅寶石色,以桑嬌維塞混合少量的梅洛,散發櫻桃和草莓的成熟果香。酒體圓潤飽滿,單寧較強,質地清新,層次豐富,優雅的餘韻是它最迷人的特色。

There is a small hill in front of the Valiano winery which is called Poggio Teo, after which this classic Chianti wine is named. The wine is deep ruby red, with Sangiovese mixed with a small amount of Merlot, with ripe fruit aromas of cherries and strawberries. Mellow and full-bodied, with strong tannins, fresh texture, rich layers, and elegant aftertaste is its most charming feature.

 

葡萄酒的魅力就在於它多變的口感以及悠久的文化,此次帶你遨遊舊世界的尊榮,下次則引領你一窺新世界的堂奧。

The charm of wine lies in its changeable taste and long-standing culture. This time, it took you on a tour of the honor of the old world, and when it comes to the next time, it will lead you to a glimpse of the mysteriousness of the new world.

葡萄酒一定要選釀酒老國嗎 _ 新世界也有自我的獨特風格

葡萄酒一定要選釀酒老國嗎 _ 新世界也有自我的獨特風格

在葡萄酒界有一種迷思,例如歷史悠久的釀酒區比較優秀,法國的葡萄酒就要波爾多的,而波爾多就屬五大酒莊最受歡迎……等等之類的說法。但葡萄酒千變萬化,不同的酒種也適合不同品味的人來品嚐。當然,葡萄酒還是有高下之分,但是名貴酒莊的酒就一定「好喝」嗎?並沒有正確答案。 D.G. Wander 曾為你介紹過舊世界葡萄酒的堂奧,今天就來聊聊新世界葡萄酒的天地。
品酒界的紅白大賽 _ 葡萄品種面面觀

品酒界的紅白大賽 _ 葡萄品種面面觀

在葡萄酒的世界中,紅酒與白酒各有各的擁護者。一般而言,紅酒濃厚飽滿,白酒香醇芬芳,但葡萄酒愛好者可是分得很仔細,紅酒中的哪一款、白酒中的哪一味,都十分講究,而這又與葡萄的品種息息相關。這次就帶各位來領略葡萄品種的奧妙之處。
餐配酒 / 酒配餐

不管是酒配餐還是餐配酒,味蕾平衡最重要

葡萄酒是西式美食的好夥伴,一杯適當的美酒,能使一道普通的料理昇華成美味十足的佳餚。無論是餐配酒,還是酒配餐,懂得一些基本的match方式,料理和美酒不但各自加分,而且能讓一加一大於二,全局Hold住你的饗宴!

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