細說「舊世界」的葡萄酒文化 _ 兩大紅酒帝國：法國與義大利
Depicting on the culture of wine in ancient times
- The two empires of wine： France and Italy.
葡萄酒有所謂「新舊」之別：不只是年份的新與舊，同時也有來自「新世界」或「舊世界」的區分。D.G. Wander 將為您一次說清楚。
Wine has a world of its own, and there are endless stories to tell. That is the reason making wine tasting culture so charming. It brings extraordinary taste and joy.
There are so-called distinctions between old and new world wine： Vintages and ancient or present times.
Old and New World Wine - Class of their own
The history of wine can be traced back to about 7000-8000 BC in the Euphrates and Tigris in West Asia and the Nile in Egypt. This traditional winemaking ability was later spread to the European continent and carried forward. The old world mainly refers to the original wine-producing countries in Europe or the Middle East such as France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Greece, Israel, and Lebanon; The new world generally refers to the Americas, Oceania, Asia and Africa, and other emerging wine-producing countries that began to import wine culture after the 16th century, such as the United States, Canada, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, China, Japan, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, etc.
The wine in the old world had a long history and origin, so there are strict specifications on grape varieties, growing, harvesting, and making techniques. Some countries even legislate to classify them to maintain the quality of the wine. Winemaking requires particular attention to the local terroir; this comes to the reason that wines are usually named after the winery or region. Elegance, restraint, terroir, minerality, leather, sophistication, and rich layers are synonymous with the old world.
On the other hand, the new world, a name alone can conjure up freshness and novel. And indeed, most of these countries began to rise in modern times, and the spirit of independence is also reflected in the wines they produced. There are not too many cumbersome restrictions in this emerging industry, each has its own special flavor, and there are also more blended wines with a bit experimental nature. While they had followed the traditions of the old world, they gradually developed their own new paths. They are best described as free-spirited, fruity, and with favorable palatability.
Wine and French Connection
Why do most people think of France when it comes to wine (especially red wine)? It turned out that grapes were introduced to southern France around 1000 BC, and then spread widely in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, in terms of European countries, France is one of the earliest regions to start wine production. Wine is also associated with a culture of sacrifice to the gods: Bacchus, the god of wine, is a great example that exists in Greek and Roman mythology. In the early time, it was used as the drink of the nobility, and as time went by, the popularization of wine came with the emergence of Christianity, which was regarded as the holy blood of Jesus Christ. As wine played an increasingly important role in religious activities, the common people could gradually drink wine more easily.
Photo by Borja Lopez from Pexels
French wines are classified by "regions", wines from different regions have their irreplaceable uniqueness. They are mainly divided into 12 production area, of which Bordeaux, Bourgogne and Champagne are the most well-known and internationally renowned. Bordeaux is known for its full-bodied red wines; Burgundy produces more refreshing red wines and elegant white wines; As for the Champagne, it is famous for its name, specializing in romantic sparkling wines. In addition, the Alsace region has the title of "Hometown of Liquor", which is well-known for Riesling dry white wine; The Beaujolais production area, which is famed for Gamay grapes, also occupies an important position. Its new produced “Beaujolais Nouveau” has become highly popular in the red wine industry. Therefore, different terroirs, climates and winemaking techniques have created many world-known grape varieties and wines.
The precise specification of Bordeaux Wines
About 700 million bottles of wine are brewed in the Bordeaux region in France every year, and these high qualities of wines are produced in approximately 8500 wineries. Due to their unique terroir, the wines produced there have a strong mellow fragrance. Nearly 90% of Bordeaux's vineyards are planted with red grapes, hence this region is known for its high-class red wine as well.
The classification system for Bordeaux wines was first created in 1855. Napoléon III announced that it would be divided into five grades, based on the reputation of the winery, as well as the price and quality of their wines at the Paris World Exposition that year. Its purpose is not only to strictly regulate the production system of wine, but also to publicize it to the world.
1935年，法國透過繁複的法律條文，建立一套完整的葡萄酒命名系統，並委由專門的監督委員會「原產地命名國家學會」（INAO）管理。因此，最早的葡萄酒命名系統也是源自法國，而其他歐洲各國也都競相模仿。現代法國則將葡萄酒分為四種級別：原產地管制命名（AOC）、法定產區（VDQS）、地區餐酒（Wine of Country）及日常餐酒（Wine of the table）。產區、命名制度與級別，繁文縟節也是舊世界葡萄酒（特別是法國）的普遍現象，從這點就可以看到他們對葡萄酒文化的堅持、講究與品味。
In 1935, France established a complete wine naming system through complicated legal provisions and entrusted it to the management of the special supervision committee "The National Institute of origin and quality" (INAO). Thus, the earliest naming system of wine was also originated from France, and afterwards, other European countries are also competing to imitate. in modern France, wines are divided into four grades: Designation of Origin Controlled (AOC), Legal Area of Origin (VDQS), Regional Wine of Country, and Wine of the table. The production area, the naming system, grading level, and red tape are also common phenomena that can be reflected in wines in the old world. From this point of view, it is obvious to see their persistence, devote, and taste in wine culture.
Italian Wine - The King and The Son
Photo by Pixabay from Pixels
Italian wine is also world-renowned and has a profound winemaking culture. The annual output accounts for it are about 20% of the world`s total, and sometimes even surpasses the French product which is a constant winner in sales figures. The 20 producing regions of wines correspond to the 20 main administrative areas in Italy, among which are the Barolo wines from Piemonte and Chianti wines from Toscana, which the most notable.
Barolo is known as the "King of Red Wine", it is made from Nebbiolo, a native Italian grape variety, which is precious and expensive. The original meaning of Nebbiolo means "little fog", which can direct to the autumn mist in Piedmont providing a wonderful environment for grape cultivation. It is ruby red in color, very full, high in acidity, alcohol and tannin, with notes of truffle, rose and tar, blending into a strong fruity and floral aroma. Toscana has an ancient winemaking tradition. Chianti red wine is the most classic one among them. The main variety of it is Sangiovese which originally means "Blood of Cupid". It is also known as the "Son of Italy", which shows its historical origin and distinguished status in the country. A clear and transparent pink color, harmonious taste and fresh fruit aroma are its most obvious features. The two most famous red wines in Italy mentioned above are of different flavors and tastes, the drinkers may choose the one that can impress the most.
Featured wine selection by dotard village
Chateau LALENE 2016（Bordeaux Superieur）
Merlot as the main grape variety, with a small amount of Cabernet Sauvignon, which perfectly presents the classic flavor of Bordeaux blends. This 'Super Bordeaux' wine, sourced from 45-year-old vines, has a ruby red color and aromas of violets, cream, black currant and pine. It is elegant tannins, full-bodied and fruity. Fresh cherries, plums, fruit peels, and a little bit of roasted aromas make it a graceful wine overall.
Chateau d'Armailhac 2008
來自波雅克（Pauillac）的五級酒莊，1933年成為木桐莊園（Château Brane-Mouton）的一部分，目前仍由前木桐莊主羅富齊（Philippe Rothschild）的女兒掌管。以卡本內蘇維儂為主，混合梅洛和少量的卡本內弗朗（Cabernet Franc，又稱「品麗珠」）與小維多（Petit Verdot，又稱「小梅鐸」）。酒體呈深寶石紅色，帶有黑梅和紅果的芬芳，醒酒後再帶出黑醋栗、櫻桃、煙草和其他香草味。酒體中等，丹寧結實。具有濃厚的煙燻味和柔中帶剛的特色。
This Grand Cru Classe from Pauillac, which became part of Château Brane-Mouton in 1933, is still managed by the daughter of former Mouton owner Philippe Rothschild. The main element of the wine is Cabernet Sauvignon, mixed with Merlot and a small amount of Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot (also known as "Little Murdoch"). It is deep ruby red, with aromas of black plum and red fruit, cassis, cherries, tobacco, and other herbs on decanting. Medium-bodied with firm tannins, and has a strong smoky flavor with a soft and firm character.
Château Rauzan-Ségla, Ségla 2009
榭格拉是著名的梅多克二級酒莊──侯松‧榭格拉（Château Rauzan Ségla）的副牌酒，現今為時尚品牌香奈兒（CHANEL）的維德摩爾（Wertheimer）家族所持有，並由知名釀酒師 Nicolas Audebert 管理。混合卡本內蘇維儂、梅洛、卡本內弗朗與小維多，酒體外觀呈深紅寶石色，單寧柔滑，散發出藍莓和香草的芳醇。
Ségla is the second label to Château Rauzan Ségla, the famous second-level Grand Cru Classe winery from Médoc, and is now owned by the Wertheimer family of the fashion brand CHANEL. It is managed by renowned winemaker Nicolas Audebert. A blend of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot, the wine has a deep ruby-colored appearance, smooth tannins, and aromas of blueberry and vanilla.
VALIANO POGGIO TEO Chianti Classico
There is a small hill in front of the Valiano winery which is called Poggio Teo, after which this classic Chianti wine is named. The wine is deep ruby red, with Sangiovese mixed with a small amount of Merlot, with ripe fruit aromas of cherries and strawberries. Mellow and full-bodied, with strong tannins, fresh texture, rich layers, and elegant aftertaste is its most charming feature.
The charm of wine lies in its changeable taste and long-standing culture. This time, it took you on a tour of the honor of the old world, and when it comes to the next time, it will lead you to a glimpse of the mysteriousness of the new world.