10 Commonly Confused Capitals in the World.
某些國家的首都，有時候很容易被直覺混淆，甚至傻傻分不清楚都有可能。別這麼有自信，要全部搞懂真的挺有難度。D.G. Wander 這次就來好好弄清楚世界上10個最容易混淆的首都，有些可能還會令你感到意外呢！
The capitals of certain countries are sometimes easily confused by intuition, which is indistinguishable. Don't be too confident when answering, it is tough to get them all clear. Now let's look at the 10 most confusing capitals in the world, and some may surprise you!
加拿大：渥太華 / Canada : Ottawa 🇨🇦
When it comes to the capital of Canada, you may think of Vancouver or Toronto at first, but the correct answer is Ottawa. Ottawa is the fourth-largest city on the east coast of Canada with a population of about 1.32 million. It is adjacent to the second largest city Montreal and the largest one Toronto. In 1857, Queen Victoria made Ottawa the capital of Canada because of the strategic factor of being easily guarded and hard to attack, which has continued to this day. Nowadays, it is famous for its high-tech industry, so it is also known as the "Silicon Valley of the North".
日本：無 / Japan : None 🇯🇵
You may say that Tokyo is the capital of Japan, but it's not. "Tokyo Metropolis" is the highest administrative region in Japan, but the constitution does not expressly stipulate the location of the capital. Therefore, from a legal point of view, Japan does not have a capital city. But to be honest, the "Imperial Palace" where the emperor lives can be regarded as the real capital of Japan, and it is indeed located in Tokyo. By the way, Tokyo Disneyland and Tokyo Narita Airport do not actually in Tokyo! They are in Chiba-ken, a place nearby Tokyo. Do you obtain knowledge from it?
澳洲：坎培拉 / Australia : Canberra 🇦🇺
Sydney, with its beautiful Opera House, and Melbourne, where the Australian Open is held every year, are often mistaken for Australia's capital. In fact, the actual capital Canberra is a relatively unpopular city. The location was taken from the eclectic area of the two major cities of Sydney and Melbourne and was planned and constructed in 1913. It is also said that Canberra is a young emerging city. Although based on the population (about 360,000), Canberra can only rank as the eighth-largest city in Australia, the urban design of the city is unique. It integrates green fields into the key areas. So, this gives Canberra the title of "Natural Capital".
印度：新德里 / India : New Delhi 🇮🇳
我們常稱印度的首都是「新德里」，它是印度的聯邦政府所在地及首都機場的名稱，從英國殖民時期就定為首都，印度獨立之後亦將「新德里」定為首都名。但它實際的總面積只有42.7平方公里，只是印度所定義之國家首都轄區（National Capital Region, NCR）中的一小部分。印度真正的首都，是包含第二大城「德里」在內，加上周邊24個衛星城市所形成的大首都圈。而不管是「舊德里」還是「新德里」，都只是德里的其中一個小區而已。不過，「新德里」還是一般外國人慣稱的印度首都名，如果要問印度當地人，他們則稱自己國家的首都為「德里」。
People often call the capital of India "New Delhi", which is the seat of the federal government of India and the name of the capital airport. It has been designated as the capital since the British colonial period. After the independence of India, people continued the name till today. In addition, the total area of the city is only 42.7 square kilometers, which is just a small part of the National Capital Region (NCR) as defined by India. The real capital is the Greater Capital Circle, which includes the second-largest city "Delhi" and 24 surrounding satellite cities. Whether it is "Old Delhi" or "New Delhi", it is only one of the districts in Delhi. However, the name "New Delhi" is still commonly known by foreigners. But if asking the locals, they often call the capital of their country "Delhi".
瑞士：伯恩 / Switzerland : Bern 🇨🇭
What comes to mind first when thinking about the capital of Switzerland? The largest city, Zurich? Or the second largest city, Geneva? Both are wrong! The capital of Switzerland is Bern, the fifth largest city, with a population of about 130,000. It is also the seat of the Swiss central government. Besides, the origin of the name Bern is interesting. In the 12th century, when the Duke of Zähringen was hunting near the Aare River, he noticed that there were bears nearby, so he named the city after the bear (which is Bär in German). Bern has a long history. The old town has not been affected by World War II and has been preserved intact. It has been approved by UNESCO as a world heritage site. For instance, the clock towers, fountains, and arcades are all culturally representative of local architectures.
土耳其：安卡拉 / Türkiye（2022/6/2前為Turkey） : Ankara 🇹🇷
Istanbul is often known as the largest city in Türkiye, but, however, the second-largest city Ankara is the capital of the country. With a population of about 4.5 million, Ankara has a long history. It is not only a large modern city in Europe but also has strong historical and cultural features. According to legend, in the 1st century BC, Alexander the Great had once visited this place. After that, a coin with an anchor shape was issued. Because the name Ankara refers to Ἄγκυρα in Greek, which means anchor. Ankara has been a transportation hub for continental trade since ancient times and has a certain position in politics, military, and commerce. Europeans often call Ankara "Angora", but the Turks have their own insistence. Since 1930, the government has required countries to call their cities Turkish, so "Ankara" has become the common name today.
South Africa：Pretoria, Cape Town, and Bloemfontein
There are three capitals in South Africa, which is unique. According to the location of the highest institutions of the executive, legislative and judicial powers, which are in Pretoria (Also known as "Fijing", the administrative capital and the seat of the central government), Cape Town (The legislative capital and the location of congress), and Bloemfontein (Or "Bu Long Chyuan", the judicial capital and the seat of the Supreme Court). Pretoria is the administrative and industrial center of South Africa, and the embassies of various countries are also concentrated here. The Taiwanese foreign embassy in South Africa is in Cape Town, which is the city that developed first in South Africa and is now the second-largest city. You shall be more familiar with another name ''Cape of Good Hope'', a famous tourist attraction. Cape Town is also famous for its beautiful natural landscapes. Besides, Bloemfontein is located on the central plateau and is now an important transportation hub in South Africa.
美國：華盛頓哥倫比亞特區 / U.S. : Washington, D.C. 🇺🇸
美國的首都？太小看我了吧，華盛頓特區啊！是的，美國的首都並非第一大城紐約，但說「華盛頓特區」也並非完全正確，只能算是簡稱。Washington, D.C.中的D.C.，全文是District of Columbia，所以美國首都的全稱應為「華盛頓哥倫比亞特區」。原來，「哥倫比亞」這個詞不只是美國一間知名的私立大學，或是南美洲的一個國家，它還意指美國的首都呢！
The capital of America, Washington D.C., is a city that shall not be underestimated. Some people may think that New York City is the capital, which is the largest city in the U.S. However, it is not. Besides, "Washington D.C." isn't the entirely correct name of it, it can only be regarded as an abbreviation. In fact, D.C. in the name refers to the District of Columbia, so the full name of the capital of the United States should be "Washington District of Columbia". It turns out that the word "Colombia" is not just a well-known private university in the United States or a country in South America, it also means the capital of the United States!
巴西：巴西利亞 / Brazil : Brasilia 🇧🇷
Rio de Janeiro is often mistaken for the capital of Brazil. But, in fact, it is Brasilia. It is a city that should not be underestimated. Brasilia is the largest city in the world in the late 20th century, it was built in the late 1950s and has a variety of unique architectures. In 1960, Brazil moved the capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia in order to accelerate the development of the inland area. Since then, the population of Brasilia has grown rapidly. In 2019, it has exceeded 3 million people, and now it has become the third-largest city in Brazil. The economy there is also prosperous. The gross national product (about 25,500 US dollars) is the highest of all cities in Latin America, and the creative urban design has also made Brasilia chosen by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
越南：河內 / Vietnam : Hanoi 🇻🇳
Yet another capital that is often misunderstood by people, instead of Ho Chi Minh City, the capital of Vietnam is Hanoi. Hanoi is an ancient city, formerly known as "Guluo", "Daluo", "Thanglong" and other names. It has a history of more than 1,000 years. Besides, since the establishment of the city, it has been the political, economic, and cultural center of North Vietnam and is famous for its rich cultural relics and historical sites. Hanoi is deeply influenced by Chinese and French culture, forming a wonderful scene of Buddhist temples, European-style buildings, churches, and streets with Southeast Asian flavors coexisting. There are many tourist attractions in the city that must be visited in Vietnam, such as Halong Bay, Thirty-Six Ancient Streets, Hoan Kiem Lake, Thang Long Water Puppet Theater, Thang Long Imperial City Ruins, and so on. The revolutionary leader of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh, whose former residence, mausoleum, and museum are not in Ho Chi Minh City, but in Hanoi!
After seeing these 10 (to be precise 12) cities from the above, don't you feel that some of the stereotypes have been greatly reversed? And feel a sense of satisfaction after reading about the world's geography? There are lots of things that are not as accurate as we thought, just like the capital cities are not what we take for granted! We live in an abstruse world, and it is full of mysteries, don't jump to conclusions so quickly next time. Learn more about the history and culture of various countries, and if having a chance, do not forget to visit these places! Roam the world in-depth, widen your knowledge, and become a true expert in traveling.