日本

🇯🇵 日本首都竟然不是京都?解封後最想到訪的國度之一「日本」

日本首都竟然不是京都?解封後最想到訪的國度之一「日本」

To your surprise, the capital of Japan isn't Kyoto! Instead, it is one of the places people most want to visit after the ban is lifted in Japan.

 

D.G. Wander從漫遊世界的視角出發,引領你用不同的角度、多元的觀點看世界,這次第一站來到日本,而她也是解封後許多人最想去旅遊的國家之一。D.G. Wander深入日本文化核心,並以在地的觀點來帶你逛日本。一開始就從日本的首都談起吧。 

D.G. Wander starts from the perspective of roaming the world and guides you to see the world from different and diverse viewpoints. This time, Japan would be the first stop, where lots of people are willing to visit after the ban. D.G. Wander went deep into the heart of Japanese culture and now he will take you to Japan from a local perspective. Let's start from the capital city first.

 

穿著和服的日本女性

PHOTO by twenty20photos from envatoelements

 

日本 / Japan

2021 人均 GDP / 2021 GDP per capita : USD$ 39,340(26th in the world)

人口數 / Population:1億2570萬 / 125.7 M

語言 / Language:日本語 / Japanese

首都 / Capital:無 / none

國土面積 / Area : 377,975km²

 

日本首都的東西軍之爭:東京與京都

The battle between the East and the West in the Japanese capital: Tokyo and Kyoto

兵庫縣姬路城

PHOTO by SeanPavone from envatoelements

 

日本首都不是在東京嗎?「東京都」的確是日本最高層級的行政區,但根據日本憲法,並未明文規定首都位置。日本首都位於何處,應由天皇的居住地(稱為「皇居」)而定,天皇現居東京,但京都仍保有宮殿舊址。

You may ask isn't Tokyo the capital of Japan? We know that "Tokyo Metropolis" is indeed the highest administrative region in Japan, but according to the Japanese constitution, the location of the capital is not explicitly stipulated. The location of the capital of Japan should be determined by the place of residence of the emperor (called the "Imperial Palace"), who now resides in Tokyo, but still retains the site of the former palace in Kyoto.

這兩個不同的「皇居觀點」,總讓東京人和京都人爭論不休。對高度現代化的東京人來說,首都在這裡無庸置疑,更何況天皇正在此長居;但對於注重傳統文化的京都人來說,宮殿還在這裡,天皇只不過是暫時移居東京,首都當然還是京都!既然憲法沒有明載,東西軍的戰端也只能存而不論。

These two different "views of the Imperial Palace" always make people who live in Tokyo and Kyoto debate endlessly. For people who live in Tokyo, a highly modern city, there is no doubt that it should be the capital, not to mention that the emperor has lived here for a long time. But on the other hand, for Kyoto people who pay attention to traditional culture, the former palace is still there, the emperor is just temporarily moving to Tokyo, and the capital is of course Kyoto! Since the constitution is not clearly stated, the battle between the east and west can only keep continuing.

 

日本人的民族性:曖昧與雙重性

The Nationality of the Japanese: Vague and Duality

日本99%以上的人口屬於「大和民族」,是民族單一性很強的國家。關於日本的民族性,1994年諾貝爾文學獎得主大江健三郎(Oe Kenzaburo)在他的獲獎致詞〈曖昧的日本的我〉中提到,日本是個「曖昧」的民族;美國文化學者潘乃德(Ruth Benedict)在《菊與劍》(The Chrysanthemum and the Sword)中,以美麗的菊花和代表武力的刀劍,來隱喻日本民族的雙重性。

More than 99% of the population of Japan belongs to the "Yamato Nation", which means that the country has a strong ethnic unity. Regarding the nationality of the Japanese, Oe Kenzaburo, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1994, mentioned in his acceptance speech of " The Vague, Japan, and Me" that the Japanese are " vague". An American cultural scholar metaphorizes the duality of the Japanese nation in "The Chrysanthemum and the Sword" with the beautiful chrysanthemum and the sword representing force.

 

櫻花

PHOTO by leungchopan from envatoelements

 

也有學者著重在動漫遊戲的「次文化」觀點,強調日本人是個特別有「想像力」的民族,藉由想像力建構的世界,早已融入他們日常生活裡的一部份;或是將日本視為儒家文化圈的一環,因此日本人特別強調「恥感文化」:以道德感作為行事的依歸。而通常會用幾個關鍵字去概括日本人的民族性,如「絆」(牽絆、羈絆之意)、「武士道」、「大和魂」、「櫻花美學」等等。

There are also scholars who focus on the "subculture" perspective of animation games, emphasizing that the Japanese are a particularly "imaginative" nation, and the world constructed through their imaginations has long been integrated into their daily life. Or they regard the Japanese as a part of the circle of Confucian culture. Therefore, they particularly emphasize the "culture of shame". In another word, they act with a sense of morality. There are some words that can summarize these characteristics such as bond (bondage or fetters), bushido (the spirit of Japanese samurai), soul od Yamato, and Sakura aesthetics.

 

日本文化中的傳統之美:建築、藝術和料理

Traditional Beauty in Japanese Culture: Architecture, Art, and Cuisine

日本文化不但保留大量的傳統文化,在中國唐朝時期的「遣唐使」遊歷中國,將部分中華文化傳入日本,如日文中的「平假名」和「片假名」,就是此時期依據漢字發明的;明治維新後也接受西學,深受歐美各國等西方文化的影響,因此形成東方與西方、古代與現代並存的文化特徵。D.G. Wander選擇三個面向:建築、藝術與日本料理,來略談日本的文化。

Japan not only retains a large amount of traditional culture but also introduced some Chinese culture during the Tang Dynasty in China through envoys that were sent to travel to China. For example, the "hiragana" and "katakana" were invented based on Chinese characters during this period. Moreover, after the Meiji Restoration, Japan was deeply influenced by Western cultures such as Europe and the United States. Therefore, the cultural characteristics formed the East and the West, and the ancient and modern. D.G. Wander chooses three aspects to briefly talk about Japanese culture: architecture, art, and Japanese cuisine.

 

1. 建築 / Architecture

 

新倉山浅間公園・忠霊塔

PHOTO by SeanPavone from envatoelements

 

提到日本文化,宗教建築絕對是一大特色。佛教於7世紀時傳入日本,因此擁有悠久的歷史文化,而神道教更是日本人根深蒂固的集體信仰,從眾多的神社和佛寺即可看出,神道教和佛教深入日本文化的程度(根據統計,日本人各約有70%人口信仰佛教和神道教,部分重疊)。包含「日式庭園」也是根據佛教思想設計建造的,它獨具風格,注重平衡與和諧的美學,是一種帶有理念性的景觀建築。

When it comes to Japanese culture, religious architecture is a major feature. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the 7th century, so it has a long history and culture. Besides, Shintoism is also a deeply rooted collective belief of the Japanese. It can be seen from the numerous shrines and Buddhist temples that Shintoism and Buddhism have penetrated Japanese culture deeply (according to statistics, about 70% of the Japanese population believe in Buddhism and Shintoism, and some overlap). Moreover, the style of the Japanese Garden is also designed and constructed according to the Buddhist concept. It is unique and has aesthetics that focus on balance and harmony, which is a kind of conceptual landscape architecture.

 

伏見稻荷大社

Photo by Stephan Streuders from pexels

 

京都和奈良兩大古都,完整保存許多神社和佛寺,兩座城市皆被聯合國教科文組織列為世界遺產,這些宗教建築少則數百年,多則上千年的歷史。像是京都的清水寺和伏見稻荷大社、三重縣的伊勢神宮,以及東京的明治神宮等,都是最知名的宗教建築之一。

The two ancient cities Kyoto and Nara have preserved many shrines and Buddhist temples well, and they are both listed as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. These religious buildings range from hundreds to thousands of years of history. For example, Kiyomizu Temple and Fushimi Inari Taisha Shrine in Kyoto, Ise Jingu Shrine in Mie Prefecture, and Meiji Jingu Shrine in Tokyo are among the most well-known religious buildings.

 

2. 藝術 / Art

茶道

Photo by Ivan Samkov from pexels

 

書法、花道和茶道,都是日本傳統藝術的精髓。書法是從中國傳入,而現代人融入佛學和心理學的角度,將書法視為一種正念、放鬆和冥想的方式;花道和日式庭園的宗旨相同,都在追求不同元素間的平衡與和諧,並將人與自然連結,達到天人合一的境界;茶道則是注重修養心性,在寧靜心神的時刻品茶,感受「一期一會」的自在美好。

Calligraphy, ikebana, and tea ceremony are the essence of traditional Japanese art. Calligraphy was introduced in China and it integrates Buddhism and psychology from people nowadays. Today, it is seen as a way of mindfulness, relaxation, and meditation. The purpose of ikebana and Japanese gardens is the same. They both pursue the balance and harmony between different elements, hope to connect our minds with nature, and reach the realm of unity. The tea ceremony focuses on cultivating one's mind, tasting tea at a time of tranquility, and feeling the freedom and beauty of "one session, one meeting".

 

日本藝妓

PHOTO by jpozzi from envotoelements

 

另外還有藝妓和歌舞伎等傳統戲劇。藝妓是在臉上塗抹白妝的女性,以表演傳統藝術、舞蹈和歌唱並招待客人,最著名的藝妓集散地就在京都的祇園,同時也是觀光勝地;歌舞伎則是屬於舞台表演,傳統上無論男女角色皆由男性擔當,且通常採世襲制(父親傳給兒子),像是知名藝人「市川海老藏」就是歌舞伎世家出身。日本傳統戲劇尚有能劇、文樂、狂言、落語和慢才等等,各有各的藝術之美。

There are also traditional dramas such as geisha and kabuki. Geisha are women who apply white makeup on their faces to perform traditional arts, they entertain guests through dancing and singing. The most famous geisha distribution center is Gion in Kyoto, which is also a tourist attraction. Furthermore, Kabuki is a kind of stage performance. Traditionally, both male and female roles are played by men, and it is usually hereditary (father to son). For instance, the well-known artist "Ichikawa Eizo" is from a Kabuki family. Traditional Japanese dramas include different types of performances such as Noh, Bunraku, Kyogen, Rakugo, and Manzai, each has its own artistic beauty.

 

3. 日本料理(正式名稱:和食) / Japanese Cuisine (Official Name: Washoku)

 

日本料理(壽司)

Photo by Rajesh TP from pexels

 

對於多數人來說,日本料理並不陌生,「和食」也因為別具特色,在2013年被聯合國教科文組織列為世界遺產。像是生魚片(漢字作「刺身」,Sashimi)、串燒(漢字作「焼鳥」,Yakitori,原意為「烤雞串」)、天婦羅(Tenpura)、壽司(Sushi)和鐵板燒(Teppanyaki)等,都是家喻戶曉的日本料理。

For most people, Japanese cuisine isn't unfamiliar, and "Washoku" was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2013 because of its unique feature. For example, Sashimi, Skewers (the original meaning is “yakitori”), Tenpura, Sushi, and Teppanyaki are all well-known Japanese dishes.

日本料理中有一種堪稱「用眼睛吃」的高檔菜餚:懷石料理,追求視覺上的享受是它最大特色。「懷石」原是和尚在腹中抱著暖石以抵抗飢餓之意,後來泛指茶道中主人宴請客人的菜餚。食物份量很少,但非常精緻化,重視擺盤等形式,就連盛裝器具也十分講究,因此懷石料理可說是兼顧視覺與味覺的藝術品。

In Japanese cuisine, there is an fancy dish that needs customers to eat with their eyes: Kaiseki cuisine. The word means a monk holding a warm stone in his stomach to resist hunger, but now, it often refers to the dishes that the host entertains guests in the tea ceremony. The amount of food is small but very refined. It pays attention to the form of the plate, and even the utensils are very particular. Therefore, Kaiseki cuisine can be said to be a work of art that combines vision and taste.

 

清水寺

Photo by Natsuko Aoyama from pexels

 

D.G. Wander巡迴日本一圈,其中應該有吸引你目光的亮點吧?當然,日本文化博大精深,難免有些遺珠之憾,但透過我們獨具慧眼的漫遊精神,相信你一定能看到不一樣的世界!期待下次我們在異國中的相遇吧。

D.G. Wander's tour of Japan should have some highlights that caught your eye, and of course, Japanese culture is extensive and profound, and it is inevitable that there might be some regrets. But through our spirit of discerning wandering, I believe you will be able to see a whole new world. Look forward to the next time we meet in another foreign country.

 

富士山

Photo by Tomáš Malík from pexels

 

新加坡星耀樟宜

新加坡的首都是新加坡市 _ 填海造陸的夢幻國際機場 _ 為了一睹漩渦瀑布而特地來此轉機

D.G. Wander這次來到了充滿南洋風情的星馬地區,先漫遊到新加坡,來看看這座東南亞海港,如何躍升成國際金融中心,介紹令人胃口大開的大雜燴沙拉羅惹;填海造陸的浩大工程;象徵種族文化大融合的Singlish;以及連續8年蟬聯第一的樟宜機場。
瑞士

🇨🇭 瑞士的首都不是蘇黎世 _ 在地球上選一個國家作為公園 _ 那就是瑞士

D.G. Wander來到山明水秀的瑞士。蘇黎世(Zurich)雖是瑞士第一大城,但瑞士的首都其實是一個相對冷門的名字:伯恩(Bern)。瑞士擁有風景秀麗的阿爾卑斯山,得天獨厚的自然景觀,不但是冬季滑雪的勝地,夏天更是登山愛好者的天堂。然而,獨特的瑞士人有某些性格,可能會令你大感意外!
土耳其

🇹🇷 土耳其的首都不是伊斯坦堡 _ 今年已更改國名 _ 請不要再叫它「火雞」

D.G. Wander的世界漫遊來到土耳其。相信不少人看到標題會愣一下,土耳其首都不是伊斯坦堡嗎?正確答案是安卡拉(Ankara,舊稱「安哥拉」)。另外,土耳其已於2022/6/2將國名正式改為Türkiye,以避免之前Turkey類似「火雞」的諧音。解封旅遊潮在即,土耳其航空已從Turkish Airlines更名為Türk Hava Yolları,想下訂機票前請再三確認,以免錯過相關的資訊。

Contact Us