澳洲

🇦🇺 澳洲的首都不是雪梨 _ 大洋中最孤立的大陸

澳洲的首都不是雪梨 _ 大洋中最孤立的大陸

The capital of Australia is not Sydney. Also, it is the most isolated continent in the ocean.

  

D.G. Wander 這次來到南半球充滿熱情的國度。讓我們從特殊的歷史地理、豐富的自然遺產、熱愛戶外活動的民族性,以及多元的文化背景這四大面向,來帶你認識她的不同樣貌。

D.G. Wander is here this time in a country of passion in the southern hemisphere. Let us take you to know the different appearances from four aspects of Australia: special historical geography, plentiful natural heritage, nationality that loves outdoor activities, and diverse cultural backgrounds.

 

艾爾斯岩

PHOTO by twenty20photos from envatoelements

 

澳大利亞聯邦 / Commonwealth of Australia

2021 人均 GDP / 2021 GDP per capita:USD$ 63,530(10th in the world)

人口數 / Population:2610萬 / 26.1 M

語言 / Language:英語 / English

首都 / Capital:坎培拉 / Canberra

國土面積 / Area:7,692,000km²

 

澳洲的歷史與地理背景

The historical and geographical background of Australia

 

澳洲的地理位置

 

澳洲屬於大洋洲的一部份,國土面積是南半球第二大、全球第六大的國家,「澳洲大陸」也是全球最小的大陸(「格陵蘭島」面積次之,是全球最大的島嶼),與鄰國皆隔海相望,是大洋之中一塊孤立的大陸。北方是印尼與東帝汶,東北方是巴布亞紐幾內亞,東南方則有紐西蘭。這裡有一個大家都忽略的點,在地圖上澳洲看似和紐西蘭非常相近,但雪梨和奧克蘭的距離卻超過2000公里(約2162公里)!

Australia is a part of Oceania. It is the second-largest country in the southern hemisphere and the sixth-largest country in the world. Besides, "Australia" is also the smallest continent in the world (Greenland ranks after him by land area and is the largest island in the world), across the sea from neighboring countries, which makes it an isolated continent in the middle of the ocean. Indonesia and Timor-Leste are to the north, Papua New Guinea to the northeast, and New Zealand to the southeast. There is a point that is often ignored by people. Australia seems to be very close to New Zealand on the map, but the distance between Sydney and Auckland is more than 2000 kilometers (about 2162 kilometers)!

 

英國航海艦隊於1770年抵達澳洲東岸,英國隨即宣布擁有澳洲主權;1788年則帶領首批移民定居雪梨(Sydney),澳洲於是成為了英國的殖民地,並作為放逐囚犯之地,同時開墾澳洲大陸。1901年1月1日,「澳大利亞聯邦」成立,各殖民區改制為「州」,成為大英國協的自治領;1931年正式成為大英國協的獨立國家,於內政和外交皆擁有獨立自主權。

The British sailing fleet arrived on the east coast of Australia in 1770, and Britain immediately declared its sovereignty over Australia; in 1788, it led the first immigrants to settle in Sydney, and Australia became a colony of the United Kingdom and was used as a place to exile prisoners while reclaiming the Australian mainland. On January 1, 1901, the "Commonwealth of Australia'' was established, and the colonies were restructured into "states" and became the Dominion of the British Association. In 1931, it officially became an independent country of the British Association, with independent autonomy in both domestic and foreign affairs.

 

豐富的世界自然遺產

Diverse World Natural Heritage

 

袋鼠

PHOTO by twenty20photos from envatoelements

 

澳洲大陸遺世而獨立,因而演化出許多獨特的生物,原生物種一直是澳洲生態的最大特色,是全球17個超級生物多樣性國家之一,超過八成的哺乳類、植物、蛙類與爬蟲類,是澳洲特有的品種。澳洲有250種哺乳動物是特有種,比例高達85%,其中較有名的是袋鼠、袋熊及無尾熊,開花植物亦約有85%特有種,鳥類約45%,近岸溫帶魚類則近9成,在在證明澳洲生態的多樣性。澳洲擁有16個聯合國教科文組織認定的世界自然遺產,64個濕地,以及超過5800個保護地或海域。

The Australian continent is isolated and independent, so many unique creatures have evolved. Native species have always been the biggest feature of Australian ecology. It is one of the 17 countries with super biodiversity in the world, and more than 80% of mammals, plants, frogs, and reptiles, which is a species unique to Australia. It has 250 species of mammals that are endemic, accounting for 85% of them. The more famous ones are kangaroos, wombats, and koalas. About 85% of flowering plants are also endemic. Around 45% of birds and nearly 90% of nearshore temperate fish. These are proving the ecological diversity of Australia. There are 16 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 64 wetlands, and more than 5,800 protected areas or seas in Australia.

 

熱愛陽光與戶外活動

Australians are favorite in sun and the outdoors

 

攀岩

PHOTO by vadymvdrobot from envatoelements

 

酷愛戶外活動是澳洲人的習性。除了喜愛陽光之外,同時也仰賴得天獨厚的氣候與豐富的自然景觀,無論是森林漫步、登山、攀岩,或是獨木舟、帆船、衝浪到滑水等水上活動,甚至冬天還可以上山滑雪。各式球類運動也非常盛行,像是第二大城墨爾本(Melbourne)每年舉辦網球界的四大滿貫賽之一:澳洲網球公開賽(Australian Open),配合1到2月相關的旅遊行銷活動,使得全世界的觀光客紛紛湧入澳洲,充分結合觀光休閒產業與體育競賽活動。

It is the habit of Australians to love the outdoors. In addition to the love of sunshine, it also relies on the unique climate and plentiful natural landscapes, whether it is forest walking, mountaineering, rock climbing, or water activities such as canoeing, sailing, surfing, water skiing, and even skiing in the mountains in winter. In addition, all kinds of ball games are also very popular. For example, Melbourne, the second-largest city, hosts one of the four major tennis tournaments every year: the Australian Open, which, in conjunction with the related tourism marketing activities from January to February, has attracted tourists from all over the world. It fully combines the tourism and leisure industry with sports competitions.

 

原住民族與各地移民的多元文化背景

The multicultural background of indigenous peoples and immigrants from all over the world

 

澳洲原住民族表演

PHOTO by ADDICTIVE_STOCK from envatoelements

 

來自世界各地的移民,以及澳洲本土與托雷斯海峽群島(Torres Strait Islands)的原住民,共同造就了澳洲豐富的多元的人文風景。澳洲原住民擁有自己多樣化的語言,以及歷史與神話,是澳洲最古老的文化。澳洲原住民居住在當地長達近6萬年,是全球歷史最悠久的民族之一,在歐洲人尚未抵達之前,印尼和巴布亞紐幾內亞的漁民,就已在澳洲北海岸一帶與當地原住民進行貿易。

Immigrants from all over the world, as well as the indigenous people of Australia and the Torres Strait Islands, have jointly created Australia's rich and diverse cultural heritage. Aboriginal Australians have their own diverse languages, as well as history and mythology, and are the oldest culture in the country. Aboriginal Australians have their own diverse languages, as well as history and mythology, and are Australia's oldest culture. Aboriginal Australians have lived there for nearly 60,000 years and are one of the oldest ethnic groups in the world. Before Europeans arrived, fishermen from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea had already traded with local aboriginals along the north coast of Australia.

19世紀中後期盛行的淘金熱,以及第二次世界大戰的軍事戰略,帶來大批的中國以及歐洲各國移民,為今日澳洲社會的多元文化奠定了基礎,有4成的澳洲人屬於移民或是移民的後代。時至今日,雖仍屬大英國協的一部分,但澳洲較偏向將自己定位為亞太地區國家,貿易夥伴也以亞洲國家為主。也因為距離上靠近亞洲,有越來越多亞洲的觀光客或移民都以澳洲作為首選。澳洲也以歡迎的態度擁抱新移民,來自世界各地的移民持續為澳洲的多元文化注入新活力。

The gold rush that prevailed in the middle and late 19th century and the military strategy of World War II brought many immigrants from China and European countries, which laid the foundation for the multiculturalism of today's Australian society. 40% of Australians belong to immigrants or descendants of immigrants. Today, although it is still a part of the British Association, Australia prefers to position itself as a country in the Asia-Pacific region, and its trading partners are mainly Asian countries. Also because of its proximity to Asia, more and more Asian tourists or immigrants are choosing Australia the first. It also welcomes new immigrants from all over the world, and they continue to bring new vitality to Australia's multiculturalism.

新加坡星耀樟宜

新加坡的首都是新加坡市 _ 填海造陸的夢幻國際機場 _ 為了一睹漩渦瀑布而特地來此轉機

D.G. Wander這次來到了充滿南洋風情的星馬地區,先漫遊到新加坡,來看看這座東南亞海港,如何躍升成國際金融中心,介紹令人胃口大開的大雜燴沙拉羅惹;填海造陸的浩大工程;象徵種族文化大融合的Singlish;以及連續8年蟬聯第一的樟宜機場。
瑞士

🇨🇭 瑞士的首都不是蘇黎世 _ 在地球上選一個國家作為公園 _ 那就是瑞士

D.G. Wander來到山明水秀的瑞士。蘇黎世(Zurich)雖是瑞士第一大城,但瑞士的首都其實是一個相對冷門的名字:伯恩(Bern)。瑞士擁有風景秀麗的阿爾卑斯山,得天獨厚的自然景觀,不但是冬季滑雪的勝地,夏天更是登山愛好者的天堂。然而,獨特的瑞士人有某些性格,可能會令你大感意外!
土耳其

🇹🇷 土耳其的首都不是伊斯坦堡 _ 今年已更改國名 _ 請不要再叫它「火雞」

D.G. Wander的世界漫遊來到土耳其。相信不少人看到標題會愣一下,土耳其首都不是伊斯坦堡嗎?正確答案是安卡拉(Ankara,舊稱「安哥拉」)。另外,土耳其已於2022/6/2將國名正式改為Türkiye,以避免之前Turkey類似「火雞」的諧音。解封旅遊潮在即,土耳其航空已從Turkish Airlines更名為Türk Hava Yolları,想下訂機票前請再三確認,以免錯過相關的資訊。

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