澳洲的首都不是雪梨 _ 大洋中最孤立的大陸
The capital of Australia is not Sydney. Also, it is the most isolated continent in the ocean.
D.G. Wander 這次來到南半球充滿熱情的國度。讓我們從特殊的歷史地理、豐富的自然遺產、熱愛戶外活動的民族性，以及多元的文化背景這四大面向，來帶你認識她的不同樣貌。
D.G. Wander is here this time in a country of passion in the southern hemisphere. Let us take you to know the different appearances from four aspects of Australia: special historical geography, plentiful natural heritage, nationality that loves outdoor activities, and diverse cultural backgrounds.
澳大利亞聯邦 / Commonwealth of Australia
2021 人均 GDP / 2021 GDP per capita：USD$ 63,530（10th in the world）
人口數 / Population：2610萬 / 26.1 M
語言 / Language：英語 / English
首都 / Capital：坎培拉 / Canberra
國土面積 / Area：7,692,000km²
The historical and geographical background of Australia
Australia is a part of Oceania. It is the second-largest country in the southern hemisphere and the sixth-largest country in the world. Besides, "Australia" is also the smallest continent in the world (Greenland ranks after him by land area and is the largest island in the world), across the sea from neighboring countries, which makes it an isolated continent in the middle of the ocean. Indonesia and Timor-Leste are to the north, Papua New Guinea to the northeast, and New Zealand to the southeast. There is a point that is often ignored by people. Australia seems to be very close to New Zealand on the map, but the distance between Sydney and Auckland is more than 2000 kilometers (about 2162 kilometers)!
The British sailing fleet arrived on the east coast of Australia in 1770, and Britain immediately declared its sovereignty over Australia; in 1788, it led the first immigrants to settle in Sydney, and Australia became a colony of the United Kingdom and was used as a place to exile prisoners while reclaiming the Australian mainland. On January 1, 1901, the "Commonwealth of Australia'' was established, and the colonies were restructured into "states" and became the Dominion of the British Association. In 1931, it officially became an independent country of the British Association, with independent autonomy in both domestic and foreign affairs.
Diverse World Natural Heritage
PHOTO by twenty20photos from envatoelements
The Australian continent is isolated and independent, so many unique creatures have evolved. Native species have always been the biggest feature of Australian ecology. It is one of the 17 countries with super biodiversity in the world, and more than 80% of mammals, plants, frogs, and reptiles, which is a species unique to Australia. It has 250 species of mammals that are endemic, accounting for 85% of them. The more famous ones are kangaroos, wombats, and koalas. About 85% of flowering plants are also endemic. Around 45% of birds and nearly 90% of nearshore temperate fish. These are proving the ecological diversity of Australia. There are 16 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 64 wetlands, and more than 5,800 protected areas or seas in Australia.
Australians are favorite in sun and the outdoors
PHOTO by vadymvdrobot from envatoelements
It is the habit of Australians to love the outdoors. In addition to the love of sunshine, it also relies on the unique climate and plentiful natural landscapes, whether it is forest walking, mountaineering, rock climbing, or water activities such as canoeing, sailing, surfing, water skiing, and even skiing in the mountains in winter. In addition, all kinds of ball games are also very popular. For example, Melbourne, the second-largest city, hosts one of the four major tennis tournaments every year: the Australian Open, which, in conjunction with the related tourism marketing activities from January to February, has attracted tourists from all over the world. It fully combines the tourism and leisure industry with sports competitions.
The multicultural background of indigenous peoples and immigrants from all over the world
PHOTO by ADDICTIVE_STOCK from envatoelements
來自世界各地的移民，以及澳洲本土與托雷斯海峽群島（Torres Strait Islands）的原住民，共同造就了澳洲豐富的多元的人文風景。澳洲原住民擁有自己多樣化的語言，以及歷史與神話，是澳洲最古老的文化。澳洲原住民居住在當地長達近6萬年，是全球歷史最悠久的民族之一，在歐洲人尚未抵達之前，印尼和巴布亞紐幾內亞的漁民，就已在澳洲北海岸一帶與當地原住民進行貿易。
Immigrants from all over the world, as well as the indigenous people of Australia and the Torres Strait Islands, have jointly created Australia's rich and diverse cultural heritage. Aboriginal Australians have their own diverse languages, as well as history and mythology, and are the oldest culture in the country. Aboriginal Australians have their own diverse languages, as well as history and mythology, and are Australia's oldest culture. Aboriginal Australians have lived there for nearly 60,000 years and are one of the oldest ethnic groups in the world. Before Europeans arrived, fishermen from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea had already traded with local aboriginals along the north coast of Australia.
The gold rush that prevailed in the middle and late 19th century and the military strategy of World War II brought many immigrants from China and European countries, which laid the foundation for the multiculturalism of today's Australian society. 40% of Australians belong to immigrants or descendants of immigrants. Today, although it is still a part of the British Association, Australia prefers to position itself as a country in the Asia-Pacific region, and its trading partners are mainly Asian countries. Also because of its proximity to Asia, more and more Asian tourists or immigrants are choosing Australia the first. It also welcomes new immigrants from all over the world, and they continue to bring new vitality to Australia's multiculturalism.